Sunday, July 22, 2007

for AP quiz 3 :)

Ang Daigdig bilang Tirahan ng Tao

Daigdig – ang planetang pangunahing tirahan ng lahat ng tao

Tatlong Pangunahing sapin/layer
Atmosphere : hanging bumabalot sa daigdig
Hydrosphere : lahat ng tubig na nasa daigdig
Lithosphere : ito ang matigas na bahagi sa ibabaw ng daigdig(matatagpuan ang mga anyong lupa)

Mga Karagatan sa Daigdig
Pacific/Pasipiko : East – North America at South America
West – Asya at Australia
North – Kipot ng bering
South – Antarctica

Atlantic: North - Asya
South – Antarctica

Indian : North – Asya
South – Antarctica
East – Australia at Indonesia
West – Africa

Arctic – Pinaka hilagang bahagi ng daigdig
** Milwaukee Region: (atlantic) pinakamalalim na
** Java Trench: (Indian) pinakamalalim na bahagi

Pinagmulan ng kontinente
-Alfred Wegener – (Meteorologist)
Tesis: nabuo ang mga kontinente sa daigdig dahil sa patuloy na paggalaw ng lupa. (isang pulgada bawat taon sa ibabaw ng daigdig)
**Pangaea – Solidong masa ng lupa na sinasabing pinanggalingan ng lahat ng kontinente sa mundo. (Super Continent)
Dagat Panthalassa – Ang dating pangalan ng ngayon ay Karagatang Pasipiko. Ito ang dagat na sinasabing nakapalibot sa Pangaea.

Gondwana Laurasia

• umusad papuntang timog
• ng lumaon ay umusad pa-hilaga
• nagkahiwalay ang Africa at Timog Amerika = Dagat Atlantic
** Nagbanggaan ang Gondwana at Laurasia = pitong (7) kontinente sa daigdig

- David Griggs – (Geologist)
Dahil sa patuloy na pagtaas ng temperature, lalong gumalaw ang mga lupa. Sa ilalim ng lupa ay mga plates na pag gumalaw at nagbanggan ay nagreresulta ng pagkakabiyak ng lupa.

** Ang pag-aaral ni David Griggs ay ibinatay nya sa pag-aaral ni Alfred Wegener. Naniniwala sya sa Tesis ni Wegener, kung kayat ang sinikap nyang gawin ay bigyan ng paliwanag ang dahilan ng paggalaw ng lupa.

• ****TANDAAN!!!
– Bawat isang kontinente ay magkakaiba at bawat isa ay may “unique” na katangian (Lokasyon, laki/sukat, likas na yaman, klima)
• Pundasyon ng bawat kontinente at ng kasaysayan nito (Mga aspekto: Politikal, Sosyal, Ekonomiks, Ispiritwal)

Apat na Kalupaan/Rehiyon:
– Eurasia – Africa : tripling kontinente (Europa, Asya, at Africa)

– Amerika – Hilaga at Timog Amerika

– Antarktika (Antarctic) – kalupaan sa Timog Polo

– Australia at Oceania

Klima sa Daigdig
Klima – pangkalahatang atmospera sa mahabang panahon
– ang pagkakabuo ng buhay sa mundo ay naapektuhan nito
– - sinasabing ang pagbabago sa klima ay isa sa mga salik ng Ebolusyon
• - May mga bansa na mayroong apat na “season” ang iba naman ay dalawa lamang

Wednesday, July 18, 2007

CHEM! quiz 3. (not yet complete)

Significant Figures
-Important numbers needed for a particular measurement based on the degree of certainty.
• All non-zero digits are significant.
• Zeros in between non-zero digits are significant.
• Zeros before the first nonzero digit are not significant. (leading zeros)
• Zeros after the last nonzero digit may or may not be significant. (trailing zeros)
– If there is a decimal point in the number, all trailing zeros are significant.
– If there is no decimal point in the number, all trailing zeros are NOT significant.
• Exact numbers are considered to have an infinite numbers of significant figures.

In MULTIPLICATION and DIVISION, consider the least number of SF’s.
• 6.35 X 4.1 = 26.035 ® 26 since given has 2 SF’s as the least number of SF’s
• 27.922 ¸ 3.3 = 8.4612 ® 8.5 since given has 2 SF’s as the least number of SF’s

In ADDITION and SUBTRACTION, consider the least number of decimal places.
• 3.36 + 21.1 = 24.46 ® 24.5 since given has 2 decimal places as the least number of decimal places
• 47.82 – 6.1 = 41.7 since given has 2 decimal places as the least number of decimal places

Rules of rounding off
• If the digit to the right of the number to be rounded off is 5 or greater, round up (add 1 to the number).
ex: 45.678 ® 45.68
26.4345 ® 26.435
• If the digit to the right of the number to be rounded off is less than 5, round down (retain the number).
ex: 45.672 ® 45.67
26.4340 ® 26.434

Precision – tells how close several measurements are to the same value.

Accuracy – tells how close a measurement is to the true or accepted value.

History of Measurements
• Body parts and objects in the natural surroundings were used by ancient man as bases for measurements.
– Early Babylonian and Egyptian records and the Bible indicate that
• length ð forearm, hand, or finger
• time ð periods of the sun, moon, and other heavenly bodies.
• capacities ð plant seeds gourds or clay or metal vessels (they were filled which were then counted to measure the volumes)
• mass ð plant seeds and stones
– “carat” - mass unit for gems (carob seed)
• The English System originated from England. Units included “digit”, “palm”, “span”, “cubit”, which later evolved into “inch”, “foot”, and “yard”.
– "pes," or foot ð unciae (Roman)
– "gird" or "yard" ð circumference of a person's waist (Saxon)
– "inch" and "ounce" ð (Latin)
• The Metric System originated in France. This was established to have a single worldwide coordinated measurement system.

• The Metric System uses the base “10” and meter is used as the unit of length defined as 1/10 millionth of the distance from the north pole to the equator.

• In 1860’s, the “Treaty of Meter” was created to set up well-defined metric standards for length and mass.

• The International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Sevres, France, coordinates the exchange information about the use and refinement of metric system.

• In 1960, the General Conference adopted an extensive revision and simplification of the system. The name Le Systeme International d’Unites (International System of Units), with the international abbreviation SI, was adopted for this modernized metric system.

Physical Quantities of Measurement
Amount of substance
Electric current
Luminous intensity

LENGTH (meters)
- distance between two points.
- degree of hotness or coldness.
- measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter.
- physical quantity which is proportional to the number of elementary entities present.
TIME (seconds)
- defined by the process of measurement and by the units chosen.
- measure of the amount of electrical charge transferred per unit time.
- the quantity of visible light that is emitted in unit
time per unit solid angle

SI (Systeme Internationale) Base Units
Physical Quantities.Unit.Abbreviation of Unit
Amount of substance.mole.mol
Electric current.ampere.A

Chem (history and branches)

History of Chemistry

1. PRACTICAL ARTS (-- to 600 BC)
· Inhabitants of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia
· Crafts: production of metals, pottery, brewing, baking, production of dyes
· Development was based on everyday experiences
· No reference to chemical principles

2. GREEK THEORY (600 BC- 300 BC)
· Greeks wanted to understand nature
· 1st theory- Substances are composed of 4 elements – Earth, Air, Fire Water
· 2nd theory- Matter = ATOMS by Leucippus and Democritus
· TRANSMUTATION- transformation of one element into another
· PLATO- transmutation is achieved by changing the shape of the atoms
· ARISTOTLE- elements and substances are made up of PRIMARY MATTER. Transformation is achieved when the form (shape, color etc.) is altered

3. ALCHEMY ( 300 BC- 1650 AD)
· Combination of ideas from the ancient Greeks and Egyptians
· Laboratory Apparatus (crucible)
· Laboratory Methods (crystallization, distillation and sublimation)
· Philosopher’s Stone (changes metals into gold)
· Elixir of Life (was believed to cure diseases; promote immortality of humans)
· IATROCHEMISTRY- branch of alchemy concerned with medicine
· ROBERT BOYLE- believed that metals can be changed into gold but this theory should be based on EXPERIMENTAL evidence.

4. PHLOGISTON THEORY (1650-1790)
· Work of Georg Ernst Stahl
· Was later found to be erroneous
· “Phlogiston” – a substance present in all flammable objects; is released when the object is burned
· “Calx”- powdery residue after burning of a substance

5. MODERN CHEMISTRY (1790 to 1999)
· Antoine Lavoisier marks the beginning of modern chemistry.
· Relied on the results of quantitative experimentation to explain certain phenomena
· Law of Conservation of Mass – Mass Before reaction = Mass After Reaction
· Wrote and Published à Elementary Treatise on Chemistry à the language of chemistry today


Branches of Chemistry

1. Organic Chemistry
* concerned with elements containing carbon (all living organisms contain at least some amount of carbon in their body)
* pharmaceutical, petrochemical and textile industries

2. Inorganic Chemistry
* concerned with elements not containing carbon (minerals of the earth’s crust and non-living matter)
* nuclear science and energy, geochemistry

3. Physical Chemistry
* behavior of chemical substances
* deals with the relations between physical properties of substances and their chemical formations along with their changes

4. Biochemistry
* concerned with the composition and changes in the formation of living species
* also called physiological chemistry or biological chemistry
* study the property of molecules, metabolism, vitamins etc.

5. Analytical Chemistry
*deals with the composition of substances* e.g. nicotine content of cigarettes and sugar content of carbonated drinks

Monday, July 16, 2007

AP (just copy and paste it to word)

this can help in the long test :) its the summary of the power points of ms. ruiz :p


1. Ano ang kasaysayan?

• Isang kawiliwiling paksa, ito ang pundasyon at balangkas na kinasasaligan ng mga agham panlipunan at humanides.

• Tumatalakay sa mga pangyayaring tunay na naganap. May pinangyarihan, may sanhi ng pangyayari at may panahon.

• Tumatalakay sa kasaysayan ng lahi, gayun din ang damdamin, saloobin, kaugalian at tradisyon ng mga tao o iba’t ibang lahi sa mundo.

• Mga mahahalagang pangyayari na naging bahagi ng nakalipas na panahon.

• Batayan ng pagkakakilanlan ng isang lahi.

• Ang nakaraan ng tao na patuloy na nag-uugnay sa kanyang hinaharap.

2. Paano ang pangyayari ay nagiging isang kasaysayan?

• May sapat na batayan

• May ebidensya at mga katunayan na naganap ang mga pangyayari

• Nabuhay ang taong nabanggit at nabigyang diin ang mga bagay na nais ipaliwanag

3. Anu-ano ang mahahalagang salik sa pagbuo ng kasaysayan?
• Tao; lugar; panahon; pangyayari

4. Anu-ano ang kasanayang matatamo sa pag-aaral ng kasaysayan?
• Mahusay na pag-unawa sa pagkakabuo ng mga kabihasnan, pagmamahal sa lahi at panata

• Pagsasapuso ng paggalang sa mga pinuno na nanindigan sa kanilang mga katwiran sa ngalan ng batas, kaayusan at katotohanan.

• Pagtanggap ng pananagutan kapalit ng karapatang tinatamasa sa demokrasya.

• Ang wastong paglinang, paggamit at pangangalaga ng mga likas na yaman.

• Pagpapahalaga sa damdaming makabansa.

5. Anu-ano ang mga batayan sa pag-aaral ng kasaysaysan?
• Batayang Primarya
- ang orihinal na batayan ng kasaysayan.
- kabilang ang mga “artifacts” tulad ng:
a. barya
b. armas pandigma
c. gusali
d. monumento
e. kagamitan
f. labi ng tao o hayop

• Batayang Sekundarya
- mga batayang hinango lamang sa batayang primarya tulad ng:
a. mga aklat
b. magasin
c. kwento
d. awit
e. tula
6. Mga Agham Panlipunan na may kaugnayan sa pag –aaral ng kasaysayan:
• Agham Pulitikal – pagtalakay ukol sa batas
• Antropolohiya – nagsusuri ng kultura mayroon ang nakalipas batay sa mga artipaktong nakalap
• Arkeolohiya – nangangalap ng mga labi at nagsusuri ng katuturan nito sa nakalipas
• Ekonomiks – nagsusuri ng kalagayang pangkabuhayan, mga dahilan ng pag-unlad at pagbagsak ng kabuhayan
• Heograpiya
• Pag-aaral tungkol sa kabuuang katangian ng daigdig – ang mga pagkakabahagi nito sa kontinente, bansa at rehiyon, anyong lupa, anyong tubig, uri ng pamumuhay at mga tao sa iba’t ibang bahagi nito

• Nagmula sa salitang griyego na “GAE” at “GRADDS” na nangangahulugang daigdig at paglalarawan o pagtatala

• Kaugnayan ng heograpiya sa kasaysayan:
• Nagbibigay liwanag sa pagkakaayos o distribusyon ng bawat pangyayari at ang kahulugan nito sa paninirahan ng tao sa isang pook

• Ang mga hayop at halamang nangabuhay sa isang pook ay ayon pa rin sa klima at panahon

• Itinatakda sa pag-aaral ng heograpiya ang uri ng hanapbuhay, tirahan at pananamit ng tao.
7. 2 panahon ng kasaysayan
• Pre-historic: Panahon ng kasaysayan na ang mga pangyayari ay di pa naitatala

• Historic: Panahon ng kasaysayan na ang pangyayari ay naitala o naisulat


Mga pananaw sa pinagmulan ng daigdig

1. Batay sa Teolohiya -nakasaad sa bibliya at matatagpuan sa Genesis.

Batay sa Mito
nagmula ang lahat sa isang Dakilang lumikha
paniniwala ng Hindu ukol sa Trimurti – ang banal na Trinidad
Tsina nagmula ang lahat sa manlilikhang si Pangu o Pan Ku
Nu – ang di umaagos na karagatan kung
saan nabuo ang burol kung saan ngayon nakatayo ang kauna-(unahang templo ng mga Ehipto)

Erebus at Gabi –isinilang si Pag-ibig (kaayusan), sumbol si Liwanag at Araw—lumitaw si Gae (daigdig), isinilang si Uranus (kalangitan) dito nagmula ang sandaigdigan at sangkatauhan
Amerika Dakilang Manlilikha Innua (eskimo)

Batay sa agham
· Teoryang Big Bang – (Fred Hoyle -1950 Amerikanong astronomo) -Mula sa pagsabog ng iisang hydrogen mass na kumawala sa kalawakan nabuo ang galaxy, solar system at iba pa.
· Teoryang Nebular – ( Immanuel Kant- pilosopong Aleman -1755) -Mula sa malaki, mainit at umiikot na nebula
-Sinang-ayunan ni Pierre Simon de Laplace – isang Pranses, mathematician, physicist at astronomo
· Planetissimal – ( Forest Ray Moulton – astronomo, Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin- heologo -1895)
-ang pagdaan ng isang bituin malapit sa araw
· Tidal (James Jeans at Harold Jeffreys – Britanya – 1918)
-pagkalikha ng malaking alon bunga ng pagdaan ng bituin sa araw


-longtest one coverage goodluck :)

For S-A and other sophomore who needs this :)

i made this site to post homeworks, notes and reviewers for you guys :) now, if you have more to add for everyone's use, please send it to my email. or IM me.

this is for people who are too lazy to actually look for the files in the zobel site or for those with out usb to save them from the classroom computers :)

hope it will help. :)